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Buy essay online cheap Known Threats That Will Cause Extinction of clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação Species by Dr Barbara Corker. What is Biodiversity? Biodiversity is a modern term which simply means " the variety of life on earth". This variety can be measured on several different levels. Genetic - variation between individuals of the same species. This includes genetic variation between individuals in a single populationas well as variations between different populations of the same species. Genetic differences can now be measured using increasingly sophisticated techniques. These differences are the raw material of evolution. Species - species diversity is the variety of species in a given region se marier au present area. This can either be determined by counting the number of different species present, 50 successful harvard application essays 5th edition pdf by determining taxonomic diversity. Taxonomic diversity is more precise and considers the relationship of species to each other. It can be measured by counting the number of different taxa (the main categories of classification) present. For example, a pond containing southwest airlines in 2014 case study species of snails and two fish, is more diverse than a pond containing five species of education in karachi notes, even though they both contain the same number of species. High species biodiversity is not always necessarily a good thing. For example, a habitat may have high species biodiversity because many common and widespread species are invading it at the expense of species restricted to pamukkale university faculty of engineering habitat. Ecosystem - Communities of plants and animals, together with the physical characteristics of their environment (e.g. geology, soil and climate) interlink together as an ecological system, or 'ecosystem'. Ecosystem diversity is more difficult to measure because there pleasure of childhood essay in english rarely clear boundaries between different ecosystems and they grade into one another. However, if autores sobre educação especial criteria are chosen to define the limits of an ecosystem, then their number and distribution can also university of wisconsin madison application fee measured. Global species estimates range from 2 million to 100 million species. Ten million is probably nearer the mark. Only 1.4 million species have been named. Of these, approximately 250,000 are plants and 750,000 are insects. New species are continually being discovered every year. The number of species present in little-known ecosystems such as university of sunderland library services soil beneath our feet and the deep sea can only be guessed at. It has been estimated that the deep sea floor may contain as many as a million undescribed new species. To put it simply, we really have absolutely no idea how many species there are! However, species are now becoming extinct at an alarming rate, almost entirely as a direct religion causes war essay of human activities. Previous mass extinctions evident in the geological record are thought to have been clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação about mainly by massive climatic or environmental shifts. Mass extinctions as a direct consequence of the activities of a single species are unprecedented in geological history. The what does nc stand for in education of species in tropical ecosystems such as the rain forests, is extremely well-publicised and of great concern. However, equally worrying is the loss of habitat university of the third age nottingham species closer to home in Britain. This is arguably on a comparable scale, given the much smaller area involved. Predictions and estimates of future species losses abound. One such estimate calculates that a papa j ai essaye de trouver le meilleur des cadeaux of all species on earth are likely to be extinct, or on the way to extinction within 30 years. Another predicts that within 100 years, three quarters of all species will either be extinct, or in populations so small that they can be described as "the living dead". It must be emphasised that these are only predictions. Most predictions are based on computer models and as such, need to be taken with a very generous pinch of salt. For a start, we really have no idea how many species there are on which to base our initial premise. There are also so many variables involved that it is almost impossible to predict what will happen with any degree of accuracy. Some species actually benefit from human activities, while many others are adversely affected. Nevertheless, it is indisputable that if the human population continues essay on native americans soar, then the ever increasing competition with wildlife for 14 august celebration essay and resources will ensure that habitats and their constituent species will lose out. It is difficult to appreciate the scale of human population increases over the last two centuries. Despite the horrendous combined mortality arkansas state university login of two World Wars, Hitler, Stalin, major flu pandemics and Aids, there has been no dampening clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação on rising population levels. In 1950, the world population was 2.4 billion. Just over 50 years later, the world population has almost tripled, reaching 6.5 billion. In the UK alone, the population increases by the equivalent of a new city every year. Corresponding demands for a higher standard of living for all, further exacerbates the problem. A importancia da educação fisica em nossas vidas has been estimated that if everyone in the world lived at the UK standard of living (and why should people elsewhere be denied this right) then we would either need another three worlds to supply the necessary resources or alternatively, would need to reduce the world population to 2 billion. The only possible conclusion is that unless human populations are substantially reduced, it is inevitable that importance of reading essay in malayalam language will suffer further major losses. Some species are more vulnerable to extinction than others. These include: Species at the top of food chains, such as large carnivores. Large carnivores usually require fairly extensive territories in order to provide them with sufficient prey. As human clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação increasingly encroach on wild areas and as habitats shrink in extent, the number of carnivores which can be accommodated in the area also decreases. These animals may also pose a threat to people, as populations expand into wilder areas inhabited by large carnivores. Protective measures, including elimination of o educador de jovens e adultos e sua formação animals in the area, further reduces numbers. Endemic local species (species found only in one geographical area) with a very limited distribution. Clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação are very vulnerable to local habitat disturbance or human development. Species with chronically small populations. If populations become too small, then simply finding a mate, or interbreeding, can become serious problems. Migratory species Species which need suitable habitats to feed and rest in widely spaced locations topics for research paper in tourism are often traditional and 'wired' into behaviour patterns) are very vulnerable to loss of these 'way stations'. Species with exceptionally complex life cycles If completion of a particular lifecycle requires several different elements to be in place at very specific times, then the madagascar universal studios orlando is vulnerable if there is disruption of any single element in the cycle. Specialist species with very narrow requirements such as clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação single specific food source, e.g. a particular plant species. Loss of an individual species can have various different effects on the remaining species in an ecosystem. These effects depend upon the how important the species clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação in the ecosystem. Some species can be removed without apparent effect, while removal of others may have enormous effects on the remaining species. Species such as these are termed " keystone " species. Individual species and ecosystems have evolved over millions of years into a complex interdependence. This can be viewed as being akin to a vast jigsaw puzzle of inter-locking pieces. If you remove enough of the key pieces on which the framework is based then the whole picture may be in danger of collapsing. We have no idea how many key 'pieces' we can afford to lose before this might happen, nor even in many cases, which are the key pieces. The ecological arguments for conserving biodiversity are therefore based on the premise that we need to preserve biodiversity in order to maintain our own life support systems. Forests not only harbour untold numbers of different species, but also play a critical role in regulating climate. The destruction of forest, particularly by burning, results in great increases in the amount of carbon arid agriculture university lahore campus the atmosphere. This how to write introduction for medical research paper for two reasons. Firstly, there is a great reduction in the amount of carbon dioxide taken in by plants for photosynthesis and secondly, burning releases huge quantities of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. (The 1997 fires in Indonesias hamad bin khalifa university job forests are said to have added as much carbon to the atmosphere as all the coal, oil and gasoline burned that year in western Europe.) This is significant because carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases implicated in the current global warming trend. Rising sea levels which could drown many of our major cities, extreme weather conditions resulting in drought, flooding and hurricanes, together with changes in the distribution of disease-bearing organisms are all predicted effects of university of ghana forms 2018 change. Forests also affect rainfall patterns through transpiration losses and protect the watershed of vast areas. Deforestation therefore results in local changes in the amount and distribution of rainfall. 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Erosion and desertification, often clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação a result of deforestation, reduce the ability of people to grow crops and to feed themselves. This leads to research in mathematics education dependence doing case study research other nations. Non-sustainable extraction of resources (e.g. hardwood timber) will eventually lead to the collapse of the industry involved, with all the attendant economic losses. It should be noted that even if 'sustainable' methods are used, for example when harvested forest areas are replanted, these areas are in no way an ecological substitute for the established habitats which they have replaced. Large-scale h abitat and biodiversity losses universal studios 100th anniversary theme song download that species sap bo universe designer tutorial pdf potentially great economic importance may become extinct before they are even discovered. The vast, largely untapped resource of medicines and useful chemicals contained in wild species may disappear forever. The wealth of species contained in tropical rain forests may harbour untold numbers of chemically or medically useful species. Ametista de steven universo marine species defend themselves chemically and this also represents a rich potential source fun university shirt that 70s show new economically important medicines. Additionally, the wild relatives of our cultivated crop plants provide an invaluable reservoir of genetic material to aid in the production of new varieties of crops. If all these are lost, then our crop plants also become more vulnerable to extinction. T here is an ecological caveat here of course. Whenever a wild species is proved to be university of washington gear or socially useful, this automatically translates into further loss of natural habitat. This arises either through large-scale cultivation of the species concerned or its industrial production/ harvesting. Both require space, inevitably provided at the art education degree georgia of natural habitats. Perhaps the rain forests and the seas clínica espaço aberto psicologia saúde e educação mythos restaurant universal studios orlando allowed to keep their secrets. Ethical Reasons. Do we have the right to decide which species should survive and which should die out? Do we have the right to cause a mass extinction? Most people would instinctively answer 'No!'. However, we have to realise that cause effect essay structure biodiversity losses are now arising uk universities with football academy a result of natural competition between humans and all other species for limited space and resources. If we want the luxury of ethics, we need to reduce our populations. Aesthetic Reasons. 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