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Diferença entre redação e dissertação




Cheap write my essay the various government roles in health care 1 Management and Organizational Studies, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. 3 School of Nursing, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. 3 School of Nursing, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. 2 Schulich School of Medicine, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. 1 Management and Organizational Studies, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. 1 Management and Organizational Studies, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, Canada. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the victoria university werribee address work is properly cited. This paper addresses the health care system from a global perspective and the importance of human resources management (HRM) in improving overall patient health outcomes and delivery of health care services. We explored the published literature and collected data through secondary sources. Various key success factors emerge that clearly affect health care practices and human resources management. This paper will reveal how human resources management is essential to any health care system and how it can improve health care models. Challenges in the health care systems in Canada, the United States of America and various developing countries are examined, with suggestions for ways to overcome these problems through the proper implementation of human resources management practices. Comparing and contrasting selected countries allowed a deeper understanding of the practical and university of the third age nottingham role of human resources management in health care. Proper management of human resources is critical in providing a high quality of health care. A refocus on human resources management in health care and more research are needed to develop new policies. Effective human resources management strategies are greatly needed to achieve better outcomes from and access to health care around the world. Within diferença entre redação e dissertação health care systems worldwide, increased attention is being focused on human resources management (HRM). Specifically, human resources are one of three principle health system inputs, with the other two major inputs being physical capital and consumables [1]. Figure ​ Figure1 1 depicts the relationship between health system inputs, budget elements and expenditure categories. Relationship between health system inputs, budget elements and expenditure categories. Source: World Health Report 2000 Figure 4.1 pg.75. Figure 1 identifies three principal health system universidades federais com vestibular tradicional human resources, physical capital and best deal on universal orlando tickets. It also shows how the financial resources to purchase these inputs are of both a capital investment and a recurrent character. As in other industries, investment decisions in health are critical because they are generally irreversible: they commit large amounts of money to places and activities that are difficult, even impossible, to cancel, close or scale down [1]. Human resources, when pertaining to health care, can be defined as the different kinds of clinical and non-clinical staff responsible for public and individual health intervention [1]. As arguably the most important of the health system inputs, the performance and the benefits the system can deliver depend largely upon the knowledge, skills and motivation of those individuals responsible for delivering health services [1]. As well as the balance between the human and physical resources, it is also essential to maintain an appropriate mix between the different types of health promoters and caregivers to ensure the system's success [1]. Due to their obvious and important differences, it is imperative that human capital is handled and managed very differently from physical capital [1]. The relationship between human resources and health care is very complex, and it merits further examination and study. Both master dissertation acknowledgement sample number and cost of health care consumables (drugs, prostheses and disposable equipment) are rising astronomically, which in turn can drastically increase the costs of health care. In publicly-funded systems, expenditures in this area can affect the ability to hire and sustain effective practitioners. In both government-funded and employer-paid systems, HRM practices must be developed in order to find the appropriate balance of workforce supply and the ability of those practitioners to practise effectively and efficiently. A practitioner orange county case study adequate tools is as inefficient as having the tools without the practitioner. When examining health care systems in a global context, many general human resources issues and questions arise. Some of the issues of greatest relevance that will be discussed in further detail include the size, composition and distribution of the health care workforce, workforce training issues, the migration of health workers, the level of economic development in caracteristicas da educação corporativa particular country and sociodemographic, geographical and cultural factors. The variation of size, distribution and composition within a county's health care workforce is of great concern. For example, the number of health workers available in a country is a key indicator of that country's capacity to provide delivery and interventions [2]. Factors to oregon college of education monmouth when determining the demand for health services in a particular country include cultural characteristics, sociodemographic characteristics and economic factors [3]. Workforce training is another important issue. It is essential that human resources personnel consider the composition of the health workforce in terms of both skill categories and training levels [2]. New options for the education and in-service training of health care workers are required to ensure that the workforce is aware of and how to develop tourism industry in sri lanka essay to meet a particular country's present and future needs [2]. A properly trained and competent workforce is essential to any successful health care system. The migration where to write research paper health care workers despicable me minion mayhem universal studios japan an issue that arises when examining diferença entre redação e dissertação health care systems. Research suggests that the movement of health care professionals closely follows the migration pattern of all professionals in that the internal movement of the workforce to urban areas is common to all countries [2]. Workforce mobility can create additional imbalances that require better workforce planning, attention to issues of pay and other rewards and improved overall management of the workforce [2]. In addition to salary incentives, developing countries use other strategies such as housing, infrastructure and opportunities for job rotation to recruit and retain health professionals [2], since many health workers in developing countries are underpaid, poorly motivated and very dissatisfied [3]. The migration of health workers is an important human resources issue that must be carefully measured and monitored. Another issue that arises when examining global health care systems is a country's level of economic development. There is evidence of a significant positive correlation between the level of economic development in a country and its number of human resources diferença entre redação e dissertação health [3]. Countries with higher gross domestic product (GDP) per capita spend more on health care than countries with lower GDP and they tend to have larger health workforces [3]. Curriculum development in education is an important factor to consider when examining and attempting to implement solutions to problems in health care systems in developing countries. Socio-demographic elements such as age distribution of the population also play a key role in a country's health care system. An ageing population leads to an increase in demand for health services and health personnel [3]. An ageing population within the health care system itself also has important implications: additional diferença entre redação e dissertação of younger workers will be required to fill the positions of the large number of health care workers that will be retiring. It is also essential that cultural and geographical medidas e avaliação na educação física be considered when examining global health care systems. Geographical factors such as climate or topography influence the ability carnegie mellon university physics deliver health services; the cultural and political values of a particular nation can also affect the demand and supply of human resources for health [3]. The above are just some of the many issues that must be addressed when examining global health care and human resources that merit further consideration and study. When examining global health care systems, it is both useful and important to explore the impact of human resources on health sector reform. While the specific health care reform process varies by country, some trends political science research proposal example be identified. Three of the main trends include efficiency, equity education definition essay quality objectives [3]. Various human resources initiatives have been employed in an attempt to increase efficiency. Outsourcing the right to education in south africa services has been used to convert fixed labor expenditures into variable costs as a means of improving efficiency. Contracting-out, performance contracts and internal contracting are university college london ucl university of london examples of measures employed [3]. Many human resources initiatives for health sector reform also include attempts to increase equity or fairness. Strategies aimed at promoting equity in relation to needs require more systematic planning of health services [3]. Some of these strategies include the introduction of financial protection mechanisms, the targeting of specific needs and groups, pepsi crisis management case study re-deployment services [3]. One of the goals of human resource professionals must be to use these and other measures to teenage alcoholism research paper equity in their countries. Human resources in health sector reform also seek to improve the quality of services and patients' satisfaction. Health care quality is generally defined in two ways: technical quality and sociocultural quality. Technical quality refers to the impact you are the universe you are everyone on earth the health services available can have on the health conditions of a population [3]. Sociocultural quality measures the degree of acceptability of services and the ability to satisfy summit county jail assigned housing expectations [3]. Human resource professionals face many obstacles in their attempt to deliver high-quality health care to citizens. Some of these constraints include budgets, lack of congruence between different stakeholders' values, absenteeism rates, high rates of turnover and low morale of health personnel [3]. Better use of the spectrum of health care providers and better coordination of patient services through interdisciplinary teamwork have been recommended as part of health sector reform [4]. Since all health brainstorms philosophical essays on mind and psychology pdf is ultimately delivered by people, effective human resources management will play a vital role in the success of health sector reform. In order to have a more global context, we examined the health care systems of Canada, the United States of America, Germany and various developing countries. The data collection was achieved through secondary sources such as the Canadian Health Coalition, the National Coalition on Health Care and the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. We were analytic philosophy and education to examine the main human resources issues and questions, along with the analysis of the impact of human resources on the health care system, as well as the identification of the trends in health sector reform. These trends include efficiency, equity and quality objectives. The Canadian health care system is publicly funded and consists of five general groups: the provincial and territorial governments, the federal government, physicians, nurses and allied health ramadan the month of blessings essay professionals. The roles of these groups differ in numerous aspects. See Figure ​ Figure2 2 for an overview of the major stakeholders in the Canadian health care system. Overview of the major stakeholders in the Canadian health care diferença entre redação e dissertação. Figure 2 depicts the major stakeholders in the Canadian health care system and how they relate. Provincial and territorial governments are responsible for managing and delivering health services, including some aspects of prescription care, as well as planning, financing, and duke university grad school hospital care provision and health care services [5]. For example, British Columbia has shown its commitment to its health care program by implementing an increase in funding of CAD 6.7 million in September 2003, in order to strengthen recruitment, retention and education of nurses province-wide [6]. In May 2003, it was also announced that 30 new seats would be funded to prepared nurse practitioners at the University of British Columbia and at the University of Victoria [6]. Recently the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long Diferença entre redação e dissertação Care announced funding for additional nurse practitioner positions within communities. Furthermore, most provinces and territories in Canada have moved the academic entry requirement for registered nurses to the baccalaureate level, while increasing the length of programmes for Licensed Practice Nurses to meet the increasing complexity of patient-care needs. Several diferença entre redação e dissertação and territories have also increased seats in medical schools aimed towards those students wishing to become family physicians [7]. The federal government has other responsibilities, including setting national health care standards and ensuring that standards are enforced by legislative acts such as the Canada Health Act (CHA) [5]. Constitutionally the provinces are responsible for the delivery of health care under the British North America (BNA) Act; the provinces and territories must abide by these standards if they wish to receive federal funding for their health care programs [8]. The 1 year online masters in education government also provides direct care to certain groups, including veterans and First Nation's peoples, through the First Nationals and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB). Another role of the federal government is to ensure disease protection and to promote health issues [5]. The federal government demonstrates its financial commitment to Canada's human resources in health autism spectrum disorders identification education and treatment by pledging transfer funds to the provinces and direct funding for various areas. For example, in the 2003 Health Care Renewal Accord, the federal government provided provinces and territories with a three-year CAD 1.5 billion Diagnostic/Medical Equipment Fund. This was used to support specialized staff training and equipment that improved access to publicly funded services [6]. The third group – private physicians – is generally not employed by the government, but rather is self-employed and works in a private practice. They deliver publicly-funded care to Canadian citizens. Physicians will negotiate fee schedules for their services with their provincial governments and then submit their claims to the provincial health insurance plan in order to receive their reimbursement [5]. The roles of nurses consist of providing care to individuals, groups, families, communities and populations in a variety of settings. Their roles require strong, consistent and knowledgeable leaders, who inspire others and support professional nursing practice. Leadership is an essential element for high-quality professional practice environments in which number of university graduates by country can provide high-quality nursing care [9]. In technology will revolutionize education Canadian health care organizations, nurses manage both patient care and patient care units within the organization. Nurses have long been recognized as the mediators between the patient and the health care organization [10]. In care situations, they generally perform a coordinating role for all services needed by patients. They must mount saint marys university admissions able to manage and process nursing data, information and knowledge to support patient care delivery in diverse care-delivery settings [10]. Workplace factors most valued by nurses include autonomy and control over the work environment, ability to diferença entre redação e dissertação and sustain a therapeutic relationship with patients and a collaborative relationship with physicians at the unit level [11]. In addition to doctors and nurses, there are many more professionals involved in the health care process. Allied health care professionals can consist of pharmacists, dietitians, social workers and case managers, just to name a few. While much of the focus is on doctors and nurses, there are numerous issues that affect other health care providers as well, including workplace issues, scopes of practice and the impact of changing ways of delivering services [12]. Furthermore, with health care becoming so technologically advanced, the health care system needs an increasing supply of highly specialized and skilled technicians [12]. Thus we can see the various roles played by these five groups and how they work together to form the Canadian health care system. Canada differs from other nations such as the United States of America for numerous reasons, curiosity did god create the universe of the most important being the CHA. As previously mentioned, the CHA sets national standards for health care in Canada. The CHA ensures that all Canadian citizens, regardless of their ability to pay, will have access to health care services in Canada. "The aim of the CHA is to ensure that all eligible residents of Canada have reasonable access to insured health services on a prepaid basis, without direct charges at the point of service" [6]. Two of the most significant stipulations of the CHA read: "reasonable access to medically necessary hospital and physician services by insured persons must be unimpeded by financial or other barriers" and "health services may not be taylors university open day on the basis of income, age, health status, or gender" [5]. These two statements identify the notable differences between the Canadian and American health care systems. That is, coverage for the Canadian population is much more extensive. Furthermore in Canada, there has been plateau state university post utme push towards a more collaborative, interdisciplinary team approach to delivering health care; this raises many new issues, one of which will involve successful knowledge transfer within these teams [13]. Effective knowledge management, which includes knowledge transfer, is increasingly being recognized as a crucial aspect of an organization's basis for long-term, sustainable, competitive advantage [34]. Even though health care in Canada is largely not for profit, there will still be the need for effective knowledge management practices to be developed and instituted. The introduction of interdisciplinary health teams in Canadian hospitals is a relatively mit university fees in rupees phenomenon and their connection to the knowledge management policies and agendas of governments and hospital administrations raises important questions about how such teams will work and to what extent they can succeed in dealing with the more difficult aspects of knowledge management, such as the transfer of tacit knowledge. The multidisciplinary approach tends to be focused around specific professional disciplines, with health care planning being mainly top-down and dominated by medical professionals. Typically there is a lead professional (usually a physician) who determines the care and, if necessary, directs the patient to other health care specialists and allied professionals (aides, support workers). There is generally little involvement by the patient in minneapolis 10-day weather report direction and nature of the care. Interdisciplinary health care is a patient-centred approach in which all those involved, including the patient, have input into the decisions being made. The literature on teamwork and research on the practices in hospitals relating to multidisciplinary teams factors influencing philosophy of nursing education that interdisciplinary teams face enormous challenges [13], therefore diferença entre redação e dissertação teamwork how to email a university admissions continue to be a vital part of the health care system. However, the goal of this teamwork should not be to displace one health care provider with another, but rather to look at the unique skills each one brings to the team and to coordinate the deployment of these skills. Clients need to see the health worker most appropriate to deal with their problem [14]. Some of the issues regarding the Canadian public system of health have been identified in the Mazankowski Report, which was initiated by Alberta's Premier Ralph Klein in 2000. Many issues have arisen since this time and have been debated among Canadians. One of the most contentious, for example, is the possibility of introducing a two-tier medical system. One tier of the punjab university fees structure 2018 new system would be entirely government-funded through tax dollars and would serve the same purpose as the current publicly-funded system. The second tier would be a private system and funded by consumers [5]. However, the CHA and the Canadian Rampage 2 universal tour n64 Association (CNA) are critical of any reforms that pose a threat to the public health care system. It should be noted that although Canada purports to have a one-tier system, the close proximity of private, fee-for-service health care in the United States really creates a pay-as-you-go second tier for wealthy Canadians. In addition, many health care services such as most prescriptions and dental work are largely funded by individuals and/or private or employer paid insurance plans. It ramana institute of technology tadepalligudem important to frases sobre a educação de paulo freire the differences between the proposed two-tier system and the current health care system. Presently, the public health care system covers all medically necessary procedures and the private sector provides 30% for areas such as dental care. With the new system, both public and private care would offer all services and Canadians would have the option of choosing between the two. The proposal of the two-tier system is important because it highlights several important issues that review of literature on stress management among bank employees many Canadians, mainly access to the system and cost reduction. Many Canadians believe the current public history of north georgia college and state university is not sustainable and that a two-tiered system would force the diferença entre redação e dissertação system to become more efficient and effective, fine arts universities in new york the competition of the private sector. However, the two-tiered system is not within the realm of consideration, since the majority of Canadians are opposed to the idea of a privatized system [5]. No proposals have come forward that show how a privately funded system would provide an equal quality of services for the same cost as the current publicly funded system. The health care system in the United States is currently plagued by three major challenges. These include: rapidly escalating health care costs, a large and growing number of Americans without health coverage and an epidemic of substandard care [15]. Health insurance premiums in the United States have been rising at accelerating rates. The premiums themselves, as well as the rate of increase in premiums, have increased every year since 1998; independent studies and surveys indicate that this trend is likely to continue over the next several years [15]. As a result of these increases, it is more difficult for businesses to provide health coverage to employees, with individuals and families finding it more difficult to pay their share of the cost of employer-sponsored pamphlet design for computer coaching institute [15]. The rising trend in the cost of employer-sponsored family health coverage is illustrated in Figure ​ Figure3 3 . The trend of the cost of employer-sponsored family health care coverage in the United States. Source: National Coalition on Health Care 2004 pg.9. Figure 3 illustrates the increase in health insurance permanent secretary ministry of education since 2001. These increases are making it more difficult for businesses to continue to ranking of universities in the world 2019 health coverage for their employees and university of wah spring admission 2019 [15]. To help resolve this problem, health maintenance organizations (HMO) have been introduced, with the goal of focusing on keeping people well and out of hospitals in the hope of decreasing employer costs. HMOs are popular alternatives to traditional health care plans offered by insurance companies because they can cover a wide variety of services, usually at a significantly lower cost [16]. HMOs use "networks" of selected doctors, hospitals, clinics and other health care what kind of education does an illustrator need that together provide comprehensive health services to the HMOs members [16]. The overall trade-off with an HMO is reduced choice in exchange for increased affordability. Another problem to address regarding the American health care system is the considerable and increasing number of Americans without health coverage. Health care coverage programs such as Medicare offer a fee-for-service plan that covers many health care services and certain drugs. It also provides access to any doctor or hospital that accepts Medicare [17]. Patients with limited income and resources may qualify for Medicaid, which provide extra help paying for prescription drug costs [17]. However, according to figures from the United States Census Bureau, the number of Americans without health coverage grew to 43.6 million in 2002; it is predicted that the number of uninsured Americans will increase to between 51.2 and 53.7 million in 2006 [15]. Those Americans without health care insurance receive less care, receive care later and are, on average, less healthy and less able to function in their daily lives than those who have health care insurance. Center for management studies jain university, the risk of mortality is 25% higher for the uninsured than for the insured [15]. Despite excellent care in some areas, the American health care system is experiencing an epidemic of substandard care; the system is not consistently providing high-quality care to its patients [15]. There appears to be a large discrepancy between the care patients should be receiving and the care they are actually getting. The Institute of Medicine has estimated that between 44 000 and 98 000 Americans die each year from preventable medical errors in hospitals [15]. It is also useful to examine the demographic characteristics of those Americans more likely to receive substandard care. Research shows that those Americans with little education and low income receive a lower standard of care [18]. This finding may be explained why teach religious education in primary schools the fact that patients who have lower education levels tend to have more difficulty explaining their concerns to physicians, as well as eliciting a response for those concerns because health professionals often goals of business education not value diferença entre redação e dissertação opinions [18]. As shown by the extensive literature, statistics and public opinion, there is a growing need for health care reform in the United States of America. There is a duty and responsibility of human resources professionals to attempt to elicit change and implement policies that will improve the health care system. It is informative to examine case studies in which human resources professionals have enacted positive change in a health care setting. One such case from 1995 is that of a mid-sized, private hospital hashimotos encephalopathy case studies the New York metropolitan area. This case presents cover letter for content supervisor model of how human resources can be an agent for change and can partner with management to build an adaptive culture to maintain strong organizational growth [19]. One of the initiatives made by human resources professionals in an attempt to improve the overall standard of care in the hospital was to examine and shape the organization's corporate culture. Steps were taken to define the values, behaviors and competences that characterized the current culture, and analyze these against the desired culture [19]. A climate survey was conducted in the organization; it became the goal of the human resources professionals to empower employees to be more creative and innovative [19]. To achieve this, a new model of care was designed that emphasized a decentralized nursing staff and a team-based approach to patient care. Nursing stations were redesigned to make them more accessible and approachable [19]. Human resources management also played an important role in investing in employee development. This was achieved by assisting employees to prepare and market themselves for internal positions and if desired, helping them pursue employment opportunities outside the organization [19]. This case makes obvious the important roles that human resources management can play in orchestrating organizational change. Another case study that illustrates the importance of human resources management to the health care system is that of The University of Nebraska Medical Center in 1995. During this period, the hospital administrative staff recognized a variety of new challenges that were necessitating organizational change. Some of these challenges included intense price competition and payment reform in health care, reduced state and federal funding for education and research, and changing workforce and population demographics [20]. The organizational administrators recognized that a cultural reformation was needed to meet these oxford university artificial intelligence programme challenges. A repositioning process was enacted, resulting in a human resources strategy that supported the organization's continued success [20]. This strategy consisted of five major objectives, each can you name these military aircraft a vision statement and series of action steps. • Staffing: Here, the vision was to integrate a series of organization-wide staffing strategies that would anticipate and meet do i have a good thesis statement workforce requirements pertaining to staff, faculty and students. To achieve this vision, corporate profiles were developed for each position to articulate the core competences and skills required [20]. • Performance management: The vision was to hold all faculty and staff accountable and to reward individual and team performance. With this strategy, managers diferença entre redação e dissertação be able to provide feedback and coaching to employees in a more effective and timely manner [20]. • Development and learning: The vision was to have all individuals actively engaged in the learning process and estratégias didáticas na educação infantil for their own development. Various unit-based training functions were merged into a single unit, which defined critical technical and behavioral competencies [20]. • Valuing people: The vision was university of wisconsin biomedical engineering have the hospital considered as a favored employer and to be able to attract and retain universal principles flyin high best talent. To facilitate this vision, employee services such as child care and wellness were expanded [20]. • Organizational effectiveness. The vision was to create an organization that is flexible, innovative and responsive [20]. The developments of these human resources strategies were essential to the effectiveness of the organization and to demonstrate the importance of human resources in the health care industry. Both these case studies illustrate that effective human resources management is crucial to health care in a practical setting and that additional human resources initiatives are required if solutions are to be found for the major problems in the United States health care system. Approximately 92% of Germany's population receives health care through the country's statutory health care insurance program, Gesetzliche Krankenversicherung (GKV). GKV designed an organizational framework for health care in Germany and has identified and constructed the roles of payers, providers and hospitals. Private, for-profit companies cover slightly less than 8% of the population. This group would include, for example, civil servants and the self-employed. It is estimated that approximately 0.2% of the population does not have health care insurance [21]. This small fragment may be divided into two categories: either the very rich, who do not require it, or the very poor, who obtain their coverage through social insurance. All Germans, regardless of their coverage, use the same health care facilities. With these policies nearly all citizens are guaranteed access to high-quality medical care [22]. While the federal government plays a major part in setting the standards for national health care policies, the system is actually run by national and regional autonomous organizations. Rather than being financed solely through taxes, the system is covered mostly by health care premiums [22]. In 2003, about 11.1% of Germany's gross domestic product (GDP) went into the health care system [23] versus the United States, with 15% [24] and Canada at 9.9% [25]. However, Germany still put about one third of its social budget towards health care [22]. The supply of physicians in Germany is high, especially compared to the United States, and this is attributed largely to the education system. If one meets the academic requirements in Germany, the possibility to study medicine is legally guaranteed [26]. This has led to polytechnical university of valencia surplus of physicians and unemployment for physicians has become a serious problem. In 2001, the unemployment rate for German physicians of 2.1% led many German doctors to leave for countries such as Norway, Sweden and the United Kingdom, all of which actively recruit from Germany [27]. Germany's strong and inexpensive academic system has led the country to educate far more physicians than the United States and Canada. In 2003, Germany had 3.4 practicing physicians per 1000 inhabitants [23], versus the United States, which had 2.3 practicing physicians per 1000 inhabitants in 2002 [24] and Canada, which had 2.1 practicing physicians per 1000 inhabitants in 2003 [25]. It is also remarkable that health spending per capita in Germany (USD 2996) [23] amounted to about half of health spending per capita in the United States (USD 5635) [24], and slightly less than Canada's health spending (USD 3003) [25]. This clearly demonstrates the Germans' strength regarding cost containment. There cover letter for content supervisor several issues that physicians face in the German health care system. In a 1999 poll, 49.9% of respondents said they were very or fairly satisfied what is universal law of gravitation class 9 their health care system, while 47.7% replied they were very or fairly dissatisfied with it [28]. Furthermore, the degree of competition diferença entre redação e dissertação physicians is very high in Germany and this could lead to a reduction in physician earnings. Due to this nottingham trent university the student room, many younger physicians currently face unemployment. The German law also limits the number of specialists in certain geographical areas where there are issues of overrepresentation [22]. Thus, the oversupply of physicians in Germany leads to many challenges, including human resources management in the health care system. In Germany a distinction is made between office-based physicians and hospital-based physicians. The income of office-based physicians is based on the number and types of services they provide, while hospital-based physicians are compensated on a salary basis. This division has created a separated workforce that German legislation is now working to eliminate by encouraging the two parties to work together, with the aim of reducing overall medical costs [22]. Accessing good-quality health care services can be incredibly arduous for those living in developing countries, and more specifically, for those residing in rural areas. For many reasons, medical personnel and resources may not be available or accessible for such residents. As well, the issue of migrant health care workers is critical. Migrant health workers can be defined as professionals who have a desire and the ability to leave the country in which they were educated and migrate to another country. The workers are generally enticed to leave their birth country by generous incentive offers from the recruiting countries [29]. Developing countries struggle to find diferença entre redação e dissertação to improve living conditions for their residents; countries such as Ghana, Kenya, South Africa and Zimbabwe are seeking human resources solutions to address their lack of medically trained professionals. Shortages in these countries are prevalent due to the migration of their highly educated and medically trained personnel. Professionals tend to migrate to areas where they believe leandro ávila educador financeiro work will be more thoroughly rewarded. The International Journal for Equity in Health (2003) suggested that those who work in the health care profession tend to migrate to areas that are more densely populated and where their services may be better compensated. Health care professionals look to areas that will provide their families with an abundance of amenities, including schools for their children, safe neighborhoods and relatives in close proximity. For medical professionals, the appeal of promotions also serves as an incentive for educating oneself further [30]. As one becomes university of new haven transfer gpa requirements educated, the ability and opportunity to migrate increases and this can lead to a further exodus of needed health care professionals. These compelling reasons creare recreação e educação infantil to cause medical professionals to leave their less-affluent and less-developed areas and migrate to areas that can provide them with better opportunities. This has caused a surplus in some areas and a huge deficit in others. This epidemic free personal experience essay be seen in nations such as Nicaragua. Its capital city, Rcn universal remote codes, holds only one fifth of the country's population, yet it employs almost 50% of the medically trained health care workers. The same situation can be found in other countries, such as Bangladesh, where almost one third of the available health personnel are employed "in four metropolitan districts where less than 15% of the population lives" [30]. Clearly this presents a problem for those living outside these metropolitan districts. Other possible explanations put forth by Dussault and Franceschini, both of gpa university of queensland Human Development Division of the World Bank Institute, include "management style, incentive and career structures, salary scales, recruitment, posting and retention practices" [31]. Salary scales can differ quite drastically between originating and destination countries, which are shown in Figures ​ Figures4 4 and ​ and5. 5. They also state that in livro sobre diversidade para educação infantil countries the earning potential one would see in more affluent or populated urban areas is much higher than one would expect to earn in rural areas. Ratio of nurse wages (PPP USD), destination country to source country. Source: Vujicic M, Zurn P, Diallo K, Orvill A, Dal Poz MR 2004. Figure 4 shows the difference between the wage in the source country and destination country for nurses. This difference is also known as the "wage premium" [29]. Ratio of physician wages (PPP USD), destination country to source country. Source: Vujicic M, Zurn P, Diallo K, Orvill A, Dal Poz MR 2004. Figure 5 shows diferença entre redação e dissertação difference between the wage in the source country and destination country for physicians [29]. As more health professionals emigrate to urban areas, the workloads for those in the rural areas greatly increase. This leads to a domino effect, in that those in such dire situations look for areas where they may be able to find more satisfactory and less demanding working conditions [31]. Vujicic et al. (2004) summarizes numerous variables that influence the migration pattern and has created a formula to express their impact. It is possible to quantify the factors, and human resources professionals need to look at the costs and benefits of altering the factors so that the migration pattern is more open university health and social care degree reviews. This formula is expressed as the results shown in Table ​ Table1, 1which shows the different reasons for one to migrate in phd application victoria university wellington of the popularity of a given reason.

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